Environmental History and Tephrostratigraphy at Carp Lake, Southwestern
Columbia Basin, Washington, USA.
Cathy Whitlock, Andrei M. Sarna-Wojcicki, Patrick J. Bartlein, and Rudy J. Nickmann (2000).
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 155: 7-29
|Carp Lake Summary Data
|Figure 1. Location of Carp Lake and Clear Lake.
|Table 1. Radiocarbon ages and tephra information. Carp Lake.|
|Table 2. Electron microprobe analysis of volcanic glass shards from tephra layers in cores from Carp Lake and comparative data for shards of correlative or chemically similar tephra layers of the northwestern U.S.|
|Figure 2. Age-vs.-depth relations at Carp Lake based on Models 1 and 2 (see text for discussion). Dates are listed in Table 1.|
|Table 3. Pollen zone descriptions for Carp Lake.|
|Figure 3a. Pollen Percentage diagram of selected taxa from Carp Lake Cores 90 and 93. Pinus includes Diploxylon-type pollen (black curve) from P. contorta or P. ponderosa, and Haploxylon-type pollen (striped curve) from P. monticola or P. albicaulis. Shaded pattern shows 5x exaggeration.|
|Figure 3b. Pollen Percentage diagram of selected taxa from Carp Lake Cores 90 and 93. Pinus includes Diploxylon-type pollen (black curve) from P. contorta or P. ponderosa, and Haploxylon-type pollen (striped curve) from P. monticola or P. albicaulis. Shaded pattern shows 5x exaggeration.|
|Figure 4. Large-scale controls on climate in the Pacific Northwest and vegetational response at Carp Lake, Washington (this paper), and Clear Lake, California (Adam, 1988). Insolation values were calculated using the routines of Berger (1978). Oxygen isotope data are the 'stacked and smoothed' SPECMAP data (Imbrie et al., 1984). CO2 concentrations are those measured in the Vostok ice core (Barnola et al., 1987). Sea-surface temperatures are winter temperatures inferred from fossil data by Morley et al. (1987) from a core from the northern Pacific Ocean. The ratios of the sum of Pseudotsuga / Larix, Quercus, and Cupressaceae pollen percentages to Picea pollen percentages (Pse + Que + Cup/Pic) and of total arboreal to total nonarboreal pollen (AP/NAP) provide an indication of vegetation type and openness at Carp Lake. Quercus percentages at Clear Lake are an indication of thermophilic vegetation (Adam, 1988). The smooth curves on the Carp Lake pollen data are loess-curve fitted values.|
|Table 4. Effects of large-scale controls on palaeoclimates as simulated by general circulation model experiments.|
|Table 5. Correlation of Carp Lake record with marine oxygen isotope and geologic-climate units.|